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Posters




Poster 1
Effect of NMDA receptor channel blockade on aggression in isolated male mice
Irina Belozertseva, Anton Bespalov (Pavlov Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia)
Eugeny Gmiro (Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia)
Wojciech Danysz (Merz & Co., Frankfurt am Main, Germany)
Edwin Zvartau (Pavlov Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia)
The present study sought to evaluate the ability of NMDA receptor channel blockers to affect expression of aggressive patterns of behavior of isolated male mice. Following NMDA receptor blockers were tested: phencyclidine (PCP; 0.3-10 mg/kg), dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.01-0.3 mg/kg), memantine (1-30 mg/kg), IEM-1754 (0.03-1 mg/kg), as well as competitive NMDA receptor antagonist d-CPPene (0.1-5.6 mg/kg). None of the drugs significantly facilitated aggression. Instead, administration of all tested drugs was followed by dose-dependent reduction in the display of aggressive behaviors. Selective anti-aggressive effects were observed only in mice pre-treated with low-affinity channel blocker IEM-1754 and low doses of dizocilpine and d-CPPene.(back to top)

Poster 2
Animal abuse: An evolutionary perspective
Jack Demarest, Ellen M. LaTorre
(Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ)
We proposed that animal abuse is related to two psychological mechanisms, fear and the need to reestablish a sense of control.  Many animals can trigger a fear response through alterations of their physical appearance.  Exposing participants to drawings of dogs exhibiting progressively greater fear-evoking characteristics (e.g., bared teeth, laid back ears) produced more fear and a greater probability that they would lash out at the dog.  Locus of control was not a significant variable. (back to top)

Poster 3
Conflict-related vocalizations in male and female Moorhens (Gallinula Chloropus)
D. Foreman, P.F. Brain, and G.D. Sales
(University of Wales, Swansea, UK)
The moorhen, Gallinula chloropus, is an aggressive bird species of the rail family found throughout the waterways of the United Kingdom.  In a study population at a Wildfowl and Wetlands centre in South Wales, an interesting and little studied vocalization has been recorded in some moorhens during territorial disputes with conspecifics and in confrontations with predators.  This unusual sound, best described as a gutteral growl, has a frequency of between 2-4 Khz and lasts for approximately 4-8 sec.  This contrasts with the more widely used range of moorhen vocalizations which are typically of a much shorter duration (e.g. 0.5 sec) and have considerably higher frequencies.(back to top)

Poster 4
Executive cognitive functioning, temperament, and antisocial behavior in conduct disordered adolescent females
P. Giancola, A.C. Mezzich, and R.E. Tarter
(Western Psychiatric Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA)
The main purpose of this study was to determine: 1) whether the combined influence of ECF and difficult temperament is associated with aggressive and non-aggressive forms of ASB and 2) whether the relations between difficult temperament and ASB are mediated by ECF in a sample of 249 conduct disordered adolescent females and controls.  The combined influence of ECF and difficult temperament was significantly related to aggressive and non-aggressive ASB, even when accounting for age, SES, and general intelligence.  However, in comparison with ECF, difficult temperament was more strongly related to non-aggressive ASB, whereas, in comparison with difficult temperament, ECF was more strongly related to aggressive ASB.  Lastly, ECF mediated the relation between difficult temperament and aggressive ASB.(back to top)

Poster 5
The EQUIP Program: Teaching youth to think and act responsibly through a peer helping approach
John C. Gibbs, G. B. Potter (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH)
A.P. Goldstein (Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY)
EQUIP is a multi-component group treatment program which motivates and equips adolescents to help one another.  Youths with antisocial cognitive and behavioral problems gain motivation to help one another through a guided peer-helping approach.  The youths' attempts to help one another are strengthened as they acquire the needed "equipment" through: moral education, cognitive therapy (correcting "thinking errors"), anger management, and social skills training.  Also depicted will be a recent favorable outcome evaluation study of EQUIP.(back to top)

Poster 6
Chronic cocaine treatment during adolescence stimulates offensive aggression in golden hamsters
R. J. Harrison, D.F. Connor, C. Nowak, and R.M. Melloni
(University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA)
It was hypothesized that chronic cocaine exposure during particular phases of postnatal development predisposes animals to heightened levels of aggression, correlated with changes in AH neuropeptide expression. To test this adolescent male Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were administered cocaine hydrochloride during their adolescent development (P27-P56), and then tested for offensive aggression using the resident-intruder model. Hamsters treated with cocaine during adolescence show elevated measures of offensive aggression (i.e., increased number of bites, attacks, flank marks, and decreased latencies to bite), while total locomotor activity and sexual motivation were not significantly altered. Studies are currently underway examining the role of specific AH-neuropeptides in cocaine-stimulated aggression. Supported by NIDA DA10547 to R.H.M. (back to top)

Poster 7
Alcohol, executive function and aggression in women
P.N.S. Hoaken, W.L.A. Strickler, and R.O. Pihl
(McGill University, Montreal, PQ, Canada)
This study was conducted to examine what variables predict women's aggressive responses.  60 women were tested using personality, neurocognitive, and IQ measures, followed by the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (half-sober, half alcohol intoxicated).  Both drug groups responded to provocation with considerable aggression.  A multiple regression revealed that the aggression was significantly predicted by scores on a factor representing executive cognitive functioning, suggesting alcohol may be less important in women's aggression than premorbid neurocognitive function.(back to top)

Poster 8
Effect of alcohol expectancy on aggression
Jeannette M. Johansson and Evan R. Harrington
(Temple University, Philadelphia, PA)
A meta-analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that alcohol expectancy increases subsequent aggression.  The results yielded a small positive effect with large variability.  Computation of the counter-null statistic mitigates against assuming a trivial effect for expectancy on aggression.  There may be moderators present that have yet to be identified, which may cause the small value of the effect size as well as the large variability.  Factors such as artificial laboratory settings and subjects' self-informing regarding their drinking status, as well as other variables possibly influencing the effect, will be discussed in the poster. (back to top)

Poster 9
Punitive childhood experiences of young adults with craniofacial abnormalities
John F. Knutson, Rebecca Wald
(University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA)
Recent epidemiological research has confirmed the link between child maltreatment and disabilities.  To test the hypothesis that craniofacial anomalies could occasion risk for physical abuse, a sample of young adult males who had been treated as children for cleft-lip and/or palate completed a reliable and valid measure of childhood disciplinary experiences.  Although some subjects described exceeding punitive experiences, the overall pattern and range of scores did not deviate significantly from normative data obtained from the same geographical area. (back to top)

Poster 10
Chronic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence stimulates vasopressin-dependent aggression in hamsters
R.H. Melloni, D. F. Connor, K. Nash, and R.J. Harrison
(University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA)
We hypothesized that chronic high dose anabolic androgenic steriod (AAS) exposure during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggression, correlated with changes in AH-AVP expression. To test this adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of AAS throughout their entire adolescent development (P27-P56), and then tested for offensive aggression using the resident-intruder model. Hamsters treated with chronic high dose AAS during adolescence display heightened measures of offensive aggression (i.e., decreased latencies to bite and increased number of bites, attacks, and flank marks), and show marked increases in AH-AVP. However, changes in AVP mRNA were not found to accompany increased peptide expression. To determine if behavioral alterations were AVP-dependent, specific AVP V1A receptor antagonists were microinjected into the AH of highly aggressive AAS-treated animals. AVP V1A antagonism markedly decreased offensive aggression. Together, these data suggest a causal role for AH-AVP in AAS-stimulated aggression. Supported by NIDA DA10547 to R.H.M.(back to top)

Poster 11
Bullying and coping behavior among schoolchildren
Runar Olafsen, Vappu Viemerö
(Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland)
The connection between roles in bullying and coping with stress in schools was studied. 510 ten- to twelve-year old pupils participated. Slightly modified versions of Olweus' Bully/Victim Questionnaire and The Life Event and Coping Inventory were used. The results suggest that the presence of "aggression" and "self-destruction" strategies is associated with bullying. Victims of bullying do not differ much from pupils in general in respect of coping behaviour. Bullies do.(back to top)

Poster 12
Effect of aversive stimulation on processing of compatible versus incompatible information about self
Farzaneh Pahlavan
(University Ren(Descartes, Paris V, France)
After execution of a problem resolution task with success or failure, 20 female students of different universities in Paris (ages 18-24 years) were instructed to make self-relevant decisions (like me/not like me) in response to trait adjectives previously scaled as being related or not to aggression.  As soon as, during a memory decision task, subjects attempted to memorize half of the aforementioned trait list, reaction times for decision making were measured.  The results suggest that subjects experiencing failure and those experiencing success differ in their decision times for schema-compatible versus schema-incompatible responses.  These results taken together with our previous published findings indicate an organizational effect of aversive stimulation upon both behavioral and cognitive structures.(back to top)

Poster 13
Effects of monoamine oxidase inhibition during brain development upon aggressive behavior in mice (preliminary report)
R. M. Palmour, F.R. Ervin, and J.M. Mejia
(McGill University, Montreal, Canada)
Variations in the activity of monoamino oxidases (MAO) have often been associated with aggressive behaviors.  In this report, we present the preliminary results of an animal model that mimics the potential behavioral effect of a point mutation in MAO genes, through selective and combined pharmacological MAO inhibition.(back to top)

Poster 14
Tantrums, temperament, and temporal lobes
Michael Potegal, H.H. Goldsmith, R. Chapman, J. Senulis, and R. J. Davidson
(University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)
By parental report, tantrum prone (TP) 4-year-olds were more angry, active, and distractible than non-TP children were.  Their videotaped angry facial expressions were also more intense.  Across groups sad facial expressions correlated with greater right frontal EEG activation.  Novel results were: 1) greater left posterior temporal activation in TP children and 2) across-group correlations between relative left temporal activation and both parentally reported and facially expressed anger.  Sadness and anger are associated with right frontal and left temporal activation, respectively, further indicating that tantrum anger and distress are separable processes.(back to top)

Poster 15
Growth of aggressive fundamentalism among adolescents
Tayyab Rashid and Afrose Anjum
(Government College, Lahore, Pakistan)
This study investigates the factors that reinforce aggressive fundamentalism among adolescents.  The sample included 40 adolescents aged 15 - 19, belonging to a religious fundamentalist political organization, actively involved in aggressive and militant activities.  The findings suggest that adolescents experiencing identity crisis, given certain socio-economic, political and religious contexts may tend to resolve their crisis by being actively involved with groups that encourage organized aggressive activities to legitimize their otherwise illegitimate motives.(back to top)

Poster 16
From hostility to assertiveness, aggressiveness, and authoritarianism: 50 years of cultural change
Heather Sabo and Arlene R. Lundquist
(Creighton University, Omaha, NE)
This research investigated gender differences in the expression of hostility and compared results with normative data from the 1957 Buss-Durkee Hostility/Guilt Inventory and other aggression-related scales. Results suggest that contemporary total hostility scores are higher and significant gender differences exist in the expression of hostility. All aggression related scales were significantly correlated with the 1957 scale, suggesting the Buss-Durkee Inventory may no longer effectively measure hostility. (back to top)

Poster 17
Delayed increase in mouse attack behavior following fluoxetine
D.A.J. Widmer and G. C. Wagner
(Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ)
Intruder mice injected with fluoxetine (FLX) (dose range 4-16 mg/kg) or saline, either once or for a two-week period and were placed into the home cage of an uninjected resident, 24-72 hrs later.  FLX (8 and 16 mg/kg) decreased intruder attack number and increased latency to first attack following acute treatment, while chronically, 16 mg/kg FLX increased both intruder and resident attacks.  FLX-induced decreases in central 5-HIAA levels may account for these changes.(back to top)

Poster 18
Television news violence: Effects on viewers
Roger N. Johnson,  Marlene Britt, and Marzena Sekinda
(Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ)
Twenty-six males and 38 females watched composite half-hour TV news broadcasts edited from WPIX-TV in New York.  Participants were tested individually and watched either a program which contained almost no violence or one in which almost all of the stories dealt with violence. Skin conductance readings were elevated (particularly for females) for those who watched violent news.  Following the broadcasts, measures of positive and negative affect showed heightened fear, hostility, and sadness combined with lower scores for joviality for those watching the violent program.(back to top)

Poster 19
Developing brain models of human aggression using computer simulations
David V. Reynolds
(University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada)
Multiple brain structures are implicated in human aggression.  When brain structures are treated as computational objects and their interaction as a dynamic system, then computer methods developed to simulate complex systems can be used to simulate these brain systems.  Research on human aggression is beset with practical and ethical concerns.  Computer simulations are designed to help mitigate these issues.  Dynamic computer simulations have potential for developing models of brain systems that mediate human aggression.(back to top)

Poster 20
Parental influence on the aggressive behavior of Chinese school children
Wu Weiping and Cai Longquan
(Institute of Educational Science, Shanghai Teachers University, Peoples Republic of China)
China's policy of one child per family has changed the growth environment for children.  As sibling contact decreases, social development is influenced more by parents, teachers, and unrelated children.  Parental emphasis on competition and dominance tends to lead to more displays of aggressive behavior in their children.  Observation of children in schools and public places indicates increased levels of quarrelling and fighting.(back to top)

Poster 21
Physical, verbal, and indirect aggression among Hindu, Moslem, and Sikh adolescents in India
Osterman, Karin and Kaj Bjorkqvist ((bo Akademi University, Turku, Finland)
Kirsti M. J. Lagerspetz (University of Turku, Turku, Finland)
T. K. Oommen (Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, U.P. India)
The use of various aggressive strategies in interpersonal conflict was investigated  among 677 adolescents of three age groups from different religious backgrounds: Hindu, Moslem, and Sikh, in Delhi, U.P., India. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Direct & Indirect Aggression Scales (DIAS; Björkqvist, Lagerspetz, & Österman, 1992), based on peer estimations. Clear variation due to religious background was found. With respect to total aggression scores, Sikh boys scored higher than Hindu boys in all age groups, and higher than Moslems at age 11. Sikh girls at age 11 scored considerably higher than Moslem and Hindu girls of the same age. At age 8,  both Sikh boys and girls had remarkably high scores of physical aggression. In Western societies, peer estimated aggression in school surroundings usually reaches a peak at age 11; in the present Indian sample, this was true only of Sikh and Hindu boys, and of Sikh girls. Moslem boys had, instead, their lowest total aggression scores at age 11. In India, boys overall scored higher than girls on all three measured types of aggression (physical, verbal, and indirect). The proportion of indirect aggression was somewhat higher among girls than among boys, in all age groups and within all religious groups.(back to top)

Poster 22
Bad bars, big nights, bad boys, and booze: Aggression in bars frequented by young adults
Kathryn Graham
(Addiction Research Foundation, London, Ontario, Canada)
The present descriptive study used qualitative techniques to develop a fuller understanding of aggression that occurs in bars frequented by young adults.  Analyses used 133 incidents of aggression observed in bars and 58 incidents reported in telephone interviews.  The paper describes the characteristics of  "bad bars," the contagion of aggression on "big nights," the large role of macho concerns, and the effects of alcohol most implicated in naturally occurring incidents.  Implications for prevention are discussed.(back to top)