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Willan, V.J.
Department of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK.

Past research has found that individual differences in personality and situational attributes can be associated with males_ likelihood of sexual aggression. By in large, the findings suggest that personality factors are best predictive. An experiment was conducted to examine whether the combined effect of personality and situational factors best predict males likelihood of forcing a female acquaintance to have non-consensual sexual intercourse following consenting sexual activity. Male students were presented with a scenario depicting a sexual interaction between the respondent and a newly acquaintanced female. As the hypothetical encounter progresses from one sexual activity to the next, respondents made two ratings: females desire to engage in each progressive activity (FD); and, likelihood of the female letting the male engage in each said activity (FL). The scenario ends when the female nonconsents to sexual intercourse, and respondents_ affect ratings were measured. Also measured were, Likelihood of Acquaintance Rape (LAR), Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA), and Hostility Towards Women (HTW). It was predicted that the combined effect of personality and situational factors on LAR would be greater than that accounted for individually. Regression analysis found that the combined effect (R2 = 66%) was greater than that accounted for individually, although situational factors (R2 = 48%) explain greater variance than the personality factors (R2 = 12%). The best predictor of LAR was males_ perceptions of FL at the beginning of the interaction, and perceptions of FD at the end of the interaction. Males reported disappointment and annoyance following nonconsent, and HTW were also significant predictors of LAR. Path analysis found similar results, with the best paths found to go via males RMA and perceptions of FD and FL at the beginning of the interaction. Therefore, it appears the best indicator of LAR is the extent to which the male adheres to rape myths, and the extent to which males perceive FD and FL when first acquainted. In conclusion, future research needs to take into account the cumulative importance of situational factors, and investigate further how the two factors combine to result in LAR.


Krahé, B.
Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Germay

Two studies are presented which explore similarities in risk markers of sexual victimization among female victims and gay male victims of sexual aggression. The first study examined risk markers among two samples of women, (Ns = 283 and 173, respectively) aged between 17 and 20 years. The second study extended the analysis to a sample of  N = 310 homosexual men, aged between 17 and 25 years. Both studies were conducted in Berlin, Germany. Variables from the following categories were examined as potential risk markers of sexual victimization:- Ambiguous communication of sexual intentions (token resistance and compliance);- Levels of sexual activity (age at 1st intercourse and number of sexual partners); and- Childhood experiences of abuse (sexual and physical abuse, emotional neglect). Modified German versions of the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss & Oros, 1982) were developed to measure female and male sexual victimization. In terms of their victimization status, respondents were assigned to one of three groups: no victimization, moderate victimization, and severe victimization. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of variance were conducted to link the risk markers to victimization status. For the two female samples, ambiguous communication of sexual intentions in the form of both "token resistance" and "compliance", higher numbers of sexual partners, and childhood sexual and physical abuse as well as emotional neglect were significantly related to sexual victimization. In the sample of gay men, the risk of sexual victimization increased as a function of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional neglect, high number of partners, ambiguous communication of sexual intentions, and acceptance of money for sex. Altogether, the findings suggest that it is possible to identify biographical experiences, communication strategies and patterns of sexual activity which are systematically linked to higher levels of sexual victimization. Highly similar patterns emerged for female and male victims of sexual aggression. The findings highlight the need to develop rape prevention programs which target victims of childhood abuse as a particular risk group and which educate both men and women about patterns of sexual behaviour and communication associated with a higher risk of victimization.


Tello, C., Samper, I., Longan, E. and Miranda, A.
The Infant and Juvenile Mental Health Centre (CSMIJ),  Lerida, Spain

A descriptive study of a group of 15 sexual aggressors of under 18 years of age attended in the Infant and Juvenile Mental Health Centre (CSMIJ) in Lleida, a centre contracted by the Catalan Health Service of the Generalitat of Catalonia to determine the factors that make the possibilities of therapeutic approach difficult or not. Collection of data, from the specific programme of the CSMIJ in Lleida, from the care of minors who have suffered ill-treatment or sexual abuse. The variables studied have been: age, sex, DSM IV, family characteristics, characteristics of the sexual aggression and therapeutic strategies. The age-range of the majority is from 12 to 14 years old (71.5%) of an exclusively male  group. The main DSM IV is of a behaviour disorder. This is the case for both normal and abnormal families. In 78.5% of cases the victims are known. The therapeutic approaches have been more feasible in minors attended at Residential Centres for Educational Attention (CRAE) of the General Department for Infant Care of the Council of Justice of the Generalitat of Catalonia. In spite of the difficulties encountered in carrying out this type of therapeutic approach (difficulties in family collaboration and psychopathic alliance with the son/daughter), the evolutionary phase in which the minors of the sample are to be found shows the possibility of change and of learning other ways to live sexuality, and in co-ordination with all the agencies involved in the care of minors, allows for coherence and universality in care.