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Stepien,  E. and Batko, A.
Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Clinical Psychology Department, Warszawa, Poland

The present study was designed to examine the relationships between approval/disapproval of unruly behaviors (e.g. lying, aggression, petty theft, insubordination, etc.) and intensity of problem behaviors (Jessor, Donovan, Costa, 1991) such as interpersonal aggression, vandalism, cigarettes smoking, alcohol drinking, etc. self-reported in adolescence and in early adulthood. The data was obtained in follow- up study, from the sample of more then 200 men and women aged 22-29, who participated in the first study 8 years ago. Being adolescents all of the subjects were students of high or technical schools and agreed to take a part in follow-up study i.e. they put in a questionnaire their personal data (names, addresses etc.). For collecting the data the "You and Health" questionnaire was used in adolescents'  (Frączek, Stępień, 1991) and young adults'  (Stępień 1999) versions. The main findings showed e.g. that: (1) disapproval for unruly behaviors increase (at least on verbal level) with the subjects' age both in girls and boys subsample. 2) The total index of frequency of antisocial behaviors is higher in adolescence then in early adulthood only among boys but not in girls subsamlpe, while the intensity of alcohol drinking significantly increase in both subsamples.  (3) The models of predictors of disapproval for unruliness (stepwise multiple regression analyses) in young adults are different for men and women. In young adult male subsample tolerance for unruly behaviors are related to their alcohol drinking, frequency of vandalism and insubordinate behaviors manifested in the same stage of life i.e. in early adulthood (r2=0,39).  In young female group the model contains completely different variables and there were only variables specific for their behaviors during adolescence. Namely, frequency of lying, risky behaviors and intensity of tobacco smoking in adolescence explained 52% of variance disapproval of unruly behaviors of young women. The results of provided analyses are discussed in terms whether and to what extent different types of adolescents' problem behaviors influence their attitudes towards unruly in adolescence as well as in early adulthood.


García-Cuenca, E. and  Sepúlveda-Sanchis, J.
Centro Mujer 24 Horas, Dirección General de la Mujer, Conselleria de Bienestar Social, Valencia, Spain.

This work describes a specific type of occupational stress, which develops in jobs where there is a close and constant relationship with clients, the so called burnout syndrome. The burnout syndrome has been defined as a response to the chronic work stress typically found in professionals working in care service organisations. According to Maslach and Jackson (1981-86), the burnout syndrome is shown as a process that integrates cognitive/attitudinal (low personal accomplishment), emotional (emotional exhaustion) and attitudinal (depersonalisation) components. By low personal accomplishment we refer to the trend towards negative self-evaluation by these professionals. Such an evaluation especially affects their ability to do their work and the relationship with the people they are attending. Feelings of emotional exhaustion refer to a situation of exhaustion due to daily and sustained contact with people they have to attend to as a matter of work. Depersonalisation can be defined as the development of negative feelings and of cynical attitudes and feelings towards the addressees of their work. The burnout syndrome is estimated by the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (Maslach and Jackson, 1986). This study intends to determine the levels of burnout in a sample of 40 professionals who are working in three centres of attention with victims of physical or psychological maltreatment, sexual aggressions and sexual harassment. The profile of the professionals is 30.95 year old, (SD: 5.24), 40.0 % psychologists, 35.0 % social workers, 10 % lawyers and 15 % telephonists; who had been working for 6.53  (mean) years in their profession. Several demographic variables have also been analysed to determine possible influences. Data show that the burnout degree in these professionals is low (Emotional exhaustion, mean: 14.70, SD: 7.23; depersonalisation, mean: 5.78, SD: 4.06; and personal accomplishment, mean: 40.73, SD: 7.38)and the duration in the organisation is not related to the burnout degree experienced. The results do not show significant differences between levels of burnout as a function depending on the type of contact with the clients (direct or on the telephone) nor between the different professionals.


Oterino, M.C., Moragrega,  I., Vicens*,  P., Carrasco, M.C.,  Redolat, R. and Brain**, P.F.
Area of Psychobiology,  Faculty of Psychologu, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. * Department of Basic Psychology, Clinical and Psychobiology, Faculty of Pssychology, University Jaume I. Castellón, Spain. ** School of Biological Sciences; University of Wales. Swansea, Wales. UK..

The role of different neurotransmitter systems in aggressive and defensive behaviors has been considered in many studies although the part played by nicotinic receptors has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated administration of two nicotinic ligands, (-)-nicotine and (-)-lobeline, using a model of isolation-induced aggression in mice. Lobeline is a unique ligand that selectively interacts with high-affinity acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs), whereas nicotine activates both high and low affinity nAchRs. Individually-housed male mice received SC daily injections of nicotine (0.93, 1.86 and 3.72 mmol/Kg), lobeline (9.3, 18.6 and 37.2 mmol/Kg) or physiological saline for 10 days. Agonistic encounters took place between the experimental animals and anosmic “standard opponents” in a neutral arena. Encounters were videotaped and evaluated using an ethologically based analysis which facilitates estimation of time allocated to eleven broad behavioral categories. Nicotine did not significantly decrease threat or attack or increase immobility. The highest dose of lobeline significantly diminished time allocated to attack without a significant decrease in time allocated to other behaviors with motor components. The intermediate and lowest dose of lobeline did not have significant effects on any behavioral category. These results agree with previous studies showing antiaggressive effects of high doses of lobeline after acute treatment, although the actions of this drug on attack behavior after repetated treatment seem to be more specific. The behavioral differences between nicotine and lobeline may be related to the multiplicity of central nicotinic receptors and the different binding specificities of each drug.



Robles, J.I. and Andreu, J.M.
Department of Personality, Assessment and Clinical Psychology, Complutense University of Madrid.

The Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) is a 90-item self report symptom inventory developed by Clinical Psychometric Research. It was designed to reflect the psychological symptom patterns of psychiatric and medical patients. A preliminary version of the scale was introduced by Derogatis, Lipman & Covi (1973) and was modified and validated in the revised form by Derogatis, Rickels  & Covi (1976). The SCL-90-R includes nine subscales: somatization (12 items), obsessive-compulsive (10 items), interpersonal sensitivity (9 items), depression (13 items), anxiety (10 items), hostility (6 items), phobic anxiety (7 items), paranoid ideation (6 items) and psychoticism  (10 items). There are three global indices of distress associated with the SCL-90-R: the Global Severity Index, the Positive Symptom Distress Index and the Positive Symptom Total. The function of each of these global measures is to communicate in a single score the level or depth of the individual’s psychopathology. Participants were 460 males (with an age range from 17 to 31 years) who were engaged in a psychological assessment program at the “Gómez Ulla” Hospital of Madrid (Spain). Participation to the study was on a voluntary basis, and it was made clear to each subject that none of the information obtained by the questionnaire would be disclosed to the staff or third persons. Both realibility and validity of the spanish version of the SCL-90-R were quite satisfactory. Besides, the Factor analysis of the clinical scales yielded one factor interpreted as psychopathological vulnerability factor.  


Trenado*+, R., D'Ocon,*+ A. and Más+, E.
*Aggression and Family Research Unit, Department of Basic Psychology, University of Valencia, Spain. +APREMI (Asociación Valenciana para la Promoción de los Derechos del Niño y Prevención del Maltrato Infantil)

The progressive increase of social sensibility on child abuse has caused some advances on the child protection area. In the 90's, several researchers have focused their studies on the intervention area, both on families that are at risk of child abuse and on those who are already in an abusive situation. These studies show the necessity of working with the children including their parents in the treatment to acquire or to improve parental skills and to reduce the family stressful situations (Wolfe, 1991; Cerezo, 1992). Several studies developed at the "Comunidad Valenciana Association for the Promotion of Child's Rigths and the Prevention of Child Maltreatment" ("Asociación de la Comunidad Valenciana para la Promoción de los Derechos del Niño y la Prevención del Maltrato Infantil": APREMI) have shown some shortcomings in family intervention and the necessity of specialised professionals in the childhood and family areas (APREMI, 1996). We propose an experimental programme on "maltreated childhood integral attention", following the model on psychological family treatment developed by Cerezo (1992) and Cerezo y Pons (1997). This study displays a descriptive analysis of the families involved in this programme during 1998 and 1999. Families' assessment consisted of the base line therapist interview information and the direct observation at home setting of family interaction, using the Standardized Observational Code (SOC III: Cerezo, Keesler, Dunn y Wahler, 1986; Cerezo, 1991). The aim of this study is to perform a microsocial analysis of family interaction, including all the family members (target child, mother, father, brothers and sisters). The participants are 30 families from Valencia, Spain, which have been detected by the Community Social Services as child maltreatment cases, including physical abuse and neglect and emotional abuse and neglect. The children's ages ranged from 3 to 13 years. Results show dysfunctional parental-child interactions related to incompetent parenting, as inconsistent parental response to child behavior and high proportion of parental negative and instructional behavior.


Simó, S., Trenado, R and Alhambra, M.S.
Aggression and Family Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Valencia, Spain.

Starting from Ainsworth´s sensitivity construct to describe maternal interactional behaviour with her baby (Ainsworth et al., 1969, 1978) and from attachment conceptions about socioemotional development, the purpose of this study is to analyse the implication of  maternal insensitive interactional styles on the development of children insecure attachment strategies. n order to analyse the effects of maternal behaviour on the development of attachment, two criteria were taken into account; on one side, the quality of maternal interaction behaviour itself, and on the other side the timing or synchrony of such behaviours. The sample is composed of 30 mother-child non-clinical dyads which were observed at 3., 6., 9. and 12 months in a non structured play situation at a foreign context. The interactional dynamic was codified with the “Codificación de la Interacción Temprana Materno-Infantil” (CITMI Trenado, Bronchal & Cerezo, 1997). The CITMI allows for a microsocial analysis of mother-child interaction taking into account  the sequential characteristics of interaction. It also considers maternal and infant contributions to interaction. The maternal contribution is operacionalized as “maternal social attention, mothers controlling response, maternal instructions, unresponsive behaviour”. The child’s categories are: “child’s social approach, child’s compliance behaviour, playing, crying and passive behaviour”.  Attachment quality was assessed at 15 months of age and classified according to  Ainsworth´s Assessment of Attachment (Ainsworth, 1978).Preliminary analysis confirm a significant relationship between the early interaction experience of the child and the later quality of attachment. Children developing an insecure inhibited strategy, frequently experienced consistent unresponsive mothers or covertly hostile mothers in early interaction. Children developing an insecure ambivalent attachment quality are supposed to have experienced inconsistent patterns of maternal control or hostility, showing mostly a mixture with sensitive behaviours or with unresponsive behaviours.These results also indicate the relevance of being more precise in the definition of maternal insensitivity for further treatment of the dyads.


Simó, S., Pons-Salvador, G., Cerezo, M.A., Dolz, L. and Alhambra, M.S.
Aggression and Family Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Valencia. Spain.

Based on the attachment theory, it is hypothesized that daily routines offer the mother-child dyad interaction opportunities in which they establish interactional dynamics and develop expectations about each other. Studies have found out that maternal sensitivity has a determinant effect not only on the child’s development of a secure attachment quality (Ainsworth, 1978), but also on the child’s predisposition to interaction with the mother (Crittenden, 1988). The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the child’s attachment quality to the mother at early childhood and the problems these children present in daily routines, like feeding, sleeping and interacting with others. The sample was extracted from a community program for psychological attention to mothers and fathers of children during the first two years of life. It is composed of 30 mother-child non-clinical dyads. The mother was interviewed at 3., 6., 9., 12 and 15 months of the child with a structured interview schedule. She was questioned about two daily routine situations with her baby that can lead to conflict: feeding and sleeping; about two other possible conflicting situations, like perceived irritability and behavioural problems in the child and other possible situations with the child that preoccupied the mother. Further more she was asked about the level of conflict of the situation, the kind of emotional reaction she exhibits, the appropriateness of her response and the expectations she has to solve the problem. Attachment quality was assessed at 15 months of age and classified according to Ainswoth´s Assessment of Attachment (Ainsworth, 1978). Preliminary analysis confirm a significant relationship between the detection of conflicts in daily routines and the attachment quality. Children who developed an insecure attachment quality showed more frequently irritability than secure children. Children who developed a secure attachment comply more often with the wishes of the mother , so that conflict didn’t arise. Mothers of insecure children tend to inform of problems in the feeding and/or sleeping situation. The results also indicate that the development of an insecure attachment strategy at early childhood can contribute to later behaviour problems, like aggressive behaviours in the child and to cycles of child abuse.


Pahlavan, F. and Lubart, T.
Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale, *Laboratoire de Cognition et Développement, associé au C.N.R.S,  Université René Descartes, Paris V, Boulogne, France.

The effects of frustration on the evaluation of images from the International Affective Photo System (TAPS), by mean of Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; Lang, 1980) were studied. A relationship between subjects’ judgments and their immediate subjective experiences of emotion was hypothesized. Ten photos from three different categories (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant), extracted from IAPS sets, were selected. The Categories were defined based on valence ratings obtained from a previous group validation study with American samples. Each photo was evaluated, under two levels of two different kinds of frustration, on valence, arousal, and dominance dimensions using a digitized version of the Self-Assessment Manikin. The presentation of photos, evaluation scales and the data collection, ratings and rating times were conducted using a 486 IBM compatible computer. Two studies were conducted using two different kinds of frustration. For the first study, the effects of a direct insult on evaluation of IAPS were investigated. For the second study, participants succeeded or failed in the execution of a pointing movement task. For each study, participants were thirty-six University-level psychology students (18 females, and 18 males) between 18 and 29 years old (M = 22.44 years) recruited by posters in the University’s building. The preliminary analysis of the first study indicated evaluative scale effects for the type of scales, type of the photos, category of photos, and sex of the subjects. The results showed effects of interactions involving sex of the subjects, and stimuli characteristics. The results of the second study, in addition to the same main and interaction effects, indicated a effect of frustration condition on the evaluative judgments of the subjects. The results concerning the response time for making evaluative judgments of the photos on the different scales indicated interaction effects nvolving, in the case of the first study, the type of the scale, and frustration conditions. For the second study, analyses showed interaction effects involving the type of the photos and frustration conditions. The results indicated a relationship between emotional events and cognitive process. Modifications introduced by negative emotional events upon cognitive processes seem dependent on the nature of type of emotional negative event.


Mondragón-Lasagabaster, J
Departamento de Sociología II, Psicología, Comunicación y Didáctica.
University of Alicante, Spain

This communication gathers in a syntethic way the study done about the perception that has a group of students of Secundary school about the violence or schoolar conflictivity, the live with (convivence) and the rules and values that are given in its context, in its school, familiar and social way. An opinion questionnaire (quiz) has been made to find out the reason or motive for violence, understood in a whole feeling, and other aspects related to these youngsters who, day by day, live with this. We can now know these results.  The object of this work of which this communication is just a first step, is to introduce in each room the interventions more adecuated in correspondence with the problems and the level of “withlife” of each group. As a conclusion of this study, we can say that this group of students that has been analysed has a real perception about the agressive situations which happen in their environment, and they affirm that they rarely have situations of grave violence. They affirm that the violent behaviours that more frequently they see, are only concerned to gibes and insults. They don,t know about physical agressions nor bully. The place where more often they occur is the school playground, at break time, or at the begining or the end of the lessons; these are the moments in which the control of the adults is minorized, and it´s less efficient than in the classroom. The students think that elder pupils are more conflictive, so in the higher levels, students create more conflictive situations.


Poveda,J.M., Iciarte E., Toro-Lira E., Rodriguez,R., Poveda,J. and Ramirez*, J.M.
Department of Psychiatry, Universidad Autonoma  Madrid, Spain
* Department of Psychiatry, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Spain

The aggressive response in a person does not come out of a void. The state of the body's emotional base line can enhance or inhibit the triggering of an impulsive response. Relaxation procedures can be learned at the schools and universities to make interpersonal relations more fluid during and after school or academic studies. The students themselves can be the agents to promote relaxation procedures. In some careers, like Medicine, stress is high. In the Faculty of Medicine (Universidad Autonoma of Madrid, Spain), a group of 200 students were trained in Relaxation Procedures as a part of the regular Program of Medical Psychology. The practical application lasted 2 hours. A one hour explanatory class was given to all students before the procedure( Total: 3 hours). The procedure was applied by a group of students trained during 3 previous meetings, each session lasting 2 hours (total: 6 hours), to groups of 8-12 participants. The teachers, who trained the students/coaches, played no active part, but were observers during the relaxation practices applied to the groups. In 100 students of this group breathing and pulse per minute, were measured before and after the application of the relaxation procedures. The 2 parameters were easy to record by non specialized teachers. Both measures showed significant changes after the application of relaxation procedures. From the beginning, the results can be evaluated since the method can be applied in an experimental way. A 3 hours training can produce healthy results after a meeting, but needs additional practice in the following weeks to become effective in the long run. Relaxation procedures can make the frustration-aggression response more unlikely, reduce stress and facilitate team work.. Public and private agencies, outside of the classroom setting, can also enhance their interpersonal relations by offering these procedures to staff and clients.